The following bibliography was compiled for the Maritime Awareness Project by Sasakawa Peace Foundation USA and the National Bureau of Asian Research. It includes publications of the International Expert Panel and the Principal Investigator. The bibliography is followed by information on zones of maritime jurisdiction and factsheets on submarine cables and the U.S. Freedom of Navigation Program.
From Sasakawa Peace Foundation USA
-“Missed opportunities in the Pentagon’s new maritime strategy,” by Dennis Blair and Jeffrey W. Hornung, CSIS Pacific Forum, PacNet #53, (Aug. 31, 2015).
-“Get Ready: China-Japan Tensions Set to Flare over East China Sea,” Article by Jeffrey W. Hornung in The National Interest (Aug. 12, 2015).
-“China’s self-defeating provocations in the South China Sea,” Opinion Article by Dennis Blair and Jeffrey W. Hornung in The Washington Post (Mar. 2, 2016).
From The National Bureau of Asian Research
-“Responding to Chinese Assertiveness in the South China Sea,” Analysis Brief by James R Holmes on territorial disputes between China/Vietnam/Philippines (Jun. 12, 2014).
-“Could Tensions in the South China Sea Spark a War,” Article by Abraham Denmark in The National Interest, (May 31, 2014).
-“Competing Claims in the South China Sea,” Roundtable Report (Feb. 19, 2014).
-“Competition and Confrontation in the East China Sea and the Implications for U.S. Policy,” Roundtable Report (Feb. 12, 2014).
-“Dim Prospects for the South China Sea,” Essay by Lincoln Hines assesses the prospects for resolution of the South China Sea dispute in 2014. (Dec. 2013).
-“The Japan-China Feud in the East China Sea,” Commentary by Ken Jimbo on managing tensions in the face of growing Japanese insecurity with a rising China (Nov. 19, 2013).
-“New Commitment to a Code of Conduct in the South China Sea,” Article by Carlyle A. Thayer discussing Code of Conduct consultations between ASEAN and China in September, 2013 (Oct. 9, 2013).
-“The State of Cooperation in the East China Sea,” Analysis brief by James Manicom assesses dispute management mechanisms between China, Japan, and Taiwan and discusses U.S. policy options in the area (Apr. 30, 2013).
-“China’s Navy and Air Force: Advancing Capabilities and Missions,” Q&A with Andrew S. Erikson on China’s growing military strength which discusses impact on South/East China Sea disputes (Sep. 27, 2012).
-“China’s Military Modernization and Implications for Northeast Asia,” Q&A with Christopher W. Hughes discusses China’s growing military strength and its regional implications, including the South/East China Sea disputes (Aug. 2, 2012).
-“ASEAN and the South China Sea: Deepening Divisions,” Q&A with Ian Storey on division within ASEAN on South China Sea issues in context of July 2012 ASEAN Regional Forum in Cambodia (Jul. 16, 2012).
-“Disputed Claims in East China Sea” Q&A with Chris Acheson (Jul. 25, 2011).
-“From Disputed Waters to Seas of Opportunity: Overcoming Barriers to Maritime Cooperation in East and Southeast Asia,” Special Report highlighting findings of three-year NBR project focused on regional cooperation to develop energy resources in East/Southeast Asia (Jul. 2011).
-“Rising Tensions in the South China Sea” Q&A with Ian Storey in context of altercations between China/Vietnam and China/Philippines (Jun. 17, 2011).
Publications of the International Expert Panel
Rommel Banlaoi, Philippine Institute for Peace, Violence and Terrorism Research
Counter Terrorism Measures in Southeast Asia: How Effective Are They? (Manila: Yuchengco Center, 2009).
Philippine Security in the Age of Terror (CRC Press/Taylor and Francis, 2009).
War on Terrorism in Southeast Asia (Quezon City: Rex Book Store, 2004).
Ja Ian Chong, National University of Singapore
External Intervention and State Formation – China, Indonesia, Thailand, 1892-1952 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012).
“The Challenge of Maintaining American Security Ties in Post-Authoritarian East Asia,” with Andrew S. Erickson, The National Interest, January 29, 2015.
“Popular Narratives versus History: Implications for an Emergent China,” European Journal of International Relations 20, no. 4 (December 2014), pp. 939-964.
Mikkal Herberg, The National Bureau of Asian Research
China’s Energy Crossroads: Forging a New Energy and Environmental Balance (Washington DC: National Bureau for Asian Research, 2014).
The New Energy Silk Road: The Growing Asia-Middle East Energy (Washington DC: National Bureau for Asian Research, 2009).
China’s Energy Rise and the Future of US-China Energy Relations (Washington DC: New America Foundation, 2011).
Nong Hong, Institute for China-America Studies
UNCLOS and Ocean Dispute Settlement: Law and Politics in the South China Sea (New York: Routledge, 2012).
Recent Developments in the South China Sea Dispute: The Prospect of a Joint Development Regime, with Wu Shicun, (New York: Routledge, 2014).
James Kraska, U.S. Naval War College
Arctic Security in the Age of Climate Change (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011).
Maritime Power and Law of the Sea (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011).
International Maritime Security Law, with Raul Pedrozo (Leiden: Brill, 2013).
James Manicom, Independent Scholar
Bridging Troubled Waters: China, Japan and Maritime Order in the East China Sea (Washington DC: Georgetown University Press, 2014).
“The Energy Context behind China’s Drilling Rig in the South China Sea,” Jamestown Foundation: China Brief, June 2014.
“Canada’s Role in the Asia-Pacific Rebalance: Prospects for Cooperation,” Asia Policy 18, July 2014.
Rory Medcalf, Australian National University
“Canberra’s Beijing Balance: Australian Perceptions of and Responses to Chinese Power,” in Mingjiang Li and Kalyan M. Kemburi, (eds), China’s Power and Asian Security (London: Routledge, 2015).
“In Defence of the Indo-Pacific: Australia’s New Strategic Map,” Australian Journal of International Affairs 68, no. 4 (June 2014), pp. 470-483.
“Australia: Allied in Transition,” in Ashley Tellis, Mercy Kuo, and Andrew Marble, (eds), Strategic Asia 2008-09: Challenges and Choices (Seattle/Washington DC: National Bureau of Asian Research, 2008).
Shafiah Muhibat, Centre for Strategic and International Studies, Indonesia
Evolving Approaches to Regional Security Cooperation: A Conceptual Analysis of Cooperative Security with Illustrations of Practices in East Asia. (Baden-Baden, Germany: Nomos, 2013).
Forging a Common Maritime Future, with other authors (Jakarta: Centre for Strategic and International Studies, 2015).
“Indonesia-U.S. Security Collaboration: Still Under the Radar?” Asian Politics and Policy 8, no. 1 (Jan. 2016), pp. 137-154.
Justin Nankivell, Daniel K. Inouye Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies
“Security Sector Development from the Andes to Asia,” Analytical Report, Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies, Apr. 2014.
“Shifting Ice, Shifting Policies: The Evolution of Ocean Governance in the Arctic,” with Kerry Lynn Nankivell, in Rouben Azizian and Artyom Lukin, (eds), From APEC 2011 to APEC 2012: American and Russian Perspectives on Asia-Pacific Security and Cooperation (Honolulu, Asia Pacific Center for Security Studies, 2013).
Kerry Lynn Nankivell, Daniel K. Inouye Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies
“China’s Most Dangerous Game: Solving the Policy Puzzle of the South China Sea,” Indo-Asia-Pacific Defense (online), Feb. 23, 2016.
“Rising From and To the Sea: China, Technology and the Future of Maritime Power,” in Virginia Bacay Watson, (ed), The Interface of Science, Technology & Security (Honolulu: Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies, 2012).
“Shifting Ice, Shifting Policies: The Evolution of Ocean Governance in the Arctic,” with Justin Nankivell, in Rouben Azizian and Artyom Lukin, (eds), From APEC 2011 to APEC 2012: American and Russian Perspectives on Asia-Pacific Security and Cooperation (Honolulu, Asia Pacific Center for Security Studies, 2013).
Hong Thao Nguyen, Vietnam National University
“China’s Nine Dotted Lines in the South China Sea: The 2011 Exchange of Diplomatic Notes Between the Philippines and China,” with Nguyen-Dang Thang, Ocean Development & International Law 43, no. 1 (2012), pp. 35-56.
“The 2002 Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea: A Note,” Ocean Development & International Law 34, nos. 3-4 (2003), pp. 279-285.
“Vietnam and the Code of Conduct for the South China Sea,” Ocean Development & International Law 32, no. 2 (2001), pp. 105-130.
Sumathy Permal, Maritime Institute of Malaysia
ASEAN Political Security Community : Identifying Maritime Challenges and Providing Options for A Security Community Beyond 2015 Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015).
Maritime Power and Law of the Sea (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011).
“Malaysia’s Maritime Border Security: Case study of Sabah,” report, Maritime Institute of Malaysia
Report, Kuala Lumpur, 2011.
Ryo Sahashi, Kanagawa University; Japan Center for International Exchange
“Security Arrangements in the Asia-Pacific: a Three-Tier Approach,” in William T. Tow and Rikki Kerstain, (eds.), Bilateral Perspectives on Regional Security: Australia, Japan and the Asia-Pacific Region (Basingstoke: Palgrave MacMillan, 2012).
“The rise of China and the transformation of Asia-Pacific security architecture,” in William T. Tow and Brendan Taylor, (eds), Contending Cooperation: Bilateralism, Multilateralism, and Asia-Pacific Security (New York: Routledge, 2013).
“Security Partnership in Japanese Asia Strategy: Creating Order, Building Capacity, and Sharing Burden,” Asie.Visions 61, Feb. 2013, Institut Francais des Relations Internationales, Paris.
Ian J. Storey, ISEAS-Yusof Ishak Institute
“Rising Tensions in the South China Sea: Southeast Asian Responses” in Ian Storey and Cheng Yi Lin, (eds), The South China Sea Dispute: Navigating Diplomatic and Strategic Tensions (Singapore: ISEAS – Yusof Ishak Institute, 2016).
Southeast Asia and the Rise of China: The Search for Security (New York: Routledge, 2011).
The United States and ASEAN-China Relations: All Quiet on the Southeast Asian Front (Carlisle: US Army War College, 2007).
Publications by the Principal Investigator
-“Projecting Strategy: The Myth of Chinese Counter-Intervention,” an article by Fravel and Christopher Twomey arguing that characterizations of China’s naval strategy as based around countering American influence overstate the extent to which China’s policies are U.S.-centric (February, 2015)
-“Territorial and Maritime Boundary Disputes in Asia,” argues that the number and severity of territorial disputes in Asia are greater than in other parts of the world and will be a continuing source of regional/global instability (October, 2014)
-“U.S. Policy Towards the Disputes in the South China Sea since 1995,” a policy brief by Fravel for the S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies in which he analyzes the recent history of U.S. policy in the South China Sea (March, 2014)
-“Q & A: M. Taylor Fravel on China’s Dispute With Vietnam,” an expert interview, conducted by The New York Times’ Edward Wong, in the context of the Haiyang Shiyou 981 standoff. (March, 2014)
–Q&A with the New York Times in which Fravel discusses the standoff between China and Vietnam in 2014 over Chinese efforts to construct an oil rig off the Paracel Islands (May 8, 2014)
-“Xi Jinping’s Overlooked Revelation on China’s Maritime Disputes,” an essay in which Fravel argues that President Xi may have hinted towards a less confrontational approach to managing its South China Sea disputes in a speech given in July, 2013. (August 15, 2013).
-“Chinese Signaling in the East China Sea?” an article in which Fravel points to data showing a decrease in Chinese patrols of the Senkaku/Diaoyu islands, potentially indicating a desire to decrease tensions (April 12, 2014)
Zones of Maritime Jurisdiction
The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) is an international agreement that was concluded in 1982 and entered into force in 1994. The convention contains a regime for governing the world’s oceans, outlining the rights and responsibilities of states.
One of the most important functions of the convention is to define different zones of maritime jurisdiction. States enjoy different rights within these zones, including navigational rights and resource exploration rights. Where these zones overlap, disputes can arise. The most common kind of disputes concerns overlapping exclusive economic zones, when the distance between two states is less than 400 nautical miles.
The foundation for determining these zones is known as a baseline, which is usually the low-water mark along a state’s coastline or insular (land) feature.
The zones are:
This zone refers to the waters on the landward side of the baseline. Coastal states enjoy effective sovereignty over these waters, including the rights to any resources in the water column or seabed. Innocent passage of foreign vessels is prohibited.
This zone extends seaward 12 nautical miles from a state’s baselines. The coastal state enjoys effective sovereignty over this zone. Innocent passage of foreign vessels is permitted.
This zone exists between 12 and 24 nautical miles from a state’s baselines. States can enforce customs, taxation, immigration, and pollution laws in this zone. Freedom of navigation and overflight by foreign vessels is permitted.
Exclusive economic zone
This zone extends from 12 to 200 nautical miles from a state’s baseline. The coastal state enjoys exclusive exploration rights to the resources in the water column and seabed. Freedom of navigation and overflight by foreign vessels is permitted.
Extended continental shelf
A state’s continental shelf refers to the natural prolongation of territory to the outer edge of the continental margin. When the continental shelf exceeds 200 nautical miles, the coastal state enjoys exclusive rights to the minerals in the seabed. Freedom of navigation and overflight by foreign vessels is permitted.
The U.S. Freedom of Navigation Program
An introduction to the U.S. Freedom of Navigation program with an analysis of key program statistics.